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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-139

Knowledge, attitude and preferred method of family planning among men living in an Urban Slum in Kano, Nigeria


1 Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Date of Submission30-Jun-2019
Date of Decision20-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance04-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication9-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Idris Usman Takai
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, PMB 3011, Kano
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njbcs.njbcs_17_19

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  Abstract 


Context: Male involvement in family planning (FP) has a direct influence on their spouse's attitude towards the use of modern contraceptives. Aims: The aim was to determine the knowledge, attitude and preferred methods of FP among men living in an urban slum of Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to study 110 married men living in Dorayi Quarters in Kano. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe categorical variables. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 39 ± 11.01 years. Majority (64%) were among 22–41 age groups. Most (97.22%) of the respondents were Muslims, whereas the remaining 2.78% were Christians. Majority of the respondents (96%) were married and 62 (57.41%) had secondary education. Up to 44.4% of the respondents had good knowledge of FP, with oral contraceptive pills as the most widely known methods (80%), followed by injectable (75%), male condom was known by 73% of the respondents, withdrawal by 55% and (IUCD) intrauterine contraceptive device by 25% in that order. Almost two-third of the respondents believed that FP practice is a good practice. Respondent's family structure and educational status were also noted to significantly influence their knowledge of and attitude towards FP (P < 0.05). Conclusions: FP knowledge, attitude and preferred method among men in Dorayi is relatively higher than popular assumptions. However, health education needs to be intensified to encourage the practice of FP.

Keywords: Attitude, family planning, knowledge, men, practice


How to cite this article:
Gajida AU, Takai IU. Knowledge, attitude and preferred method of family planning among men living in an Urban Slum in Kano, Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2020;17:135-9

How to cite this URL:
Gajida AU, Takai IU. Knowledge, attitude and preferred method of family planning among men living in an Urban Slum in Kano, Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Oct 29];17:135-9. Available from: https://www.njbcs.net/text.asp?2020/17/2/135/297597




  Introduction Top


A woman's ability to space and limit her pregnancies has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancy.[1] In developing nations like Nigeria, children are valued as they provide extra useful hands, especially in communities where agriculture is the major source of income. Furthermore, most citizens depend on their children for sustenance at old age and thus are reluctant to limit birth.[1] Family planning (FP) enables couples to make the decision about the timing and spacing of pregnancy.[2] The ideal method of contraception should be reliable, highly effective, easy to use, inexpensive, widely available, easily distributed and safe. It should also be rapidly reversible, independent of intercourse, with no side effects and acceptable to all.[3]

Male involvement in FP has positively affected the contraceptive use and has caused an overall decline in fertility in the developing world.[4] Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive method but also in its effective use and continuation.[4] Male involvement is not limited to the use of FP methods by itself and it refers rather to the supportive attitude that males have towards their wives in using FP and motivation in sharing responsibility in reproductive health matters.[5] In addition, the dynamics of decision-making between a husband and wife also create barriers to access.[6] The influence of social and cultural factors on contraceptive use in developing countries including Nigeria was reported, particularly the influence of the mother-in-law and the husband on FP decision-making and the importance of communication between spouses regarding the use of contraception.[6] Despite the huge benefits, FP is one of the most difficult and least discussed topics, particularly amongst males in societies where men have the final decision-making power regarding most issues, including reproductive health.[6] Nevertheless, there have been some efforts to target men through either advocacy or behavioural change interventions, but very little have been achieved.[6]

A number of studies have been conducted in Nigeria on reproductive health issues. It appears that studies specifically on men's knowledge, attitudes and preferred method of FP are scarce.[7] Current UN figures show that worldwide, about a third of all couples practicing FP rely on methods that require male cooperation, including modern methods such as the use of condoms and male sterilisation,[7] the critical variables that influence the probability that they will use FP are religion and ethnicity.[7] Other predicators are FP approval, media exposure, place of residence and spousal approval and communication.[7] Men in Northern Nigeria may be the sole decision makers in all matters of the family.[7] This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and preferred method of FP among men in highly populated Dorayi, Gwale Local Government Area, Kano State.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional descriptive study design carried out in Dorayi, Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State. Gwale Local Government has population of about 422,020 consisting of about 61.3% males and 38.7% females.[8] Most of the residents are Hausas, semi-literate and have poor socioeconomic status. The inhabitants are typically Muslims, engaged mainly agriculture and trading.

Data were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, which sought information about their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and preferred FP method.

The sample size was determined using the Cochran formula for minimum sample size.[9]



Where; n = Minimum sample size, z = Point on the normal distribution curve which is equivalent to 95% confidence interval = 1.96, P = prevalence rate from previous study. The prevalence of 7% (0.07) was obtained from a study conducted by the Health Communication Collaborative Capacity, on the assessment of FP use in Bauchi and Sokoto States.[10]q = Complementary probability of P = 1 − p, d = degree of precision at 95% confidence limit = 0.05.

Substituting these values into the formula:



Hence, the minimum sample size of 100.035 was rounded up to 110 to allow for non-response/missing data. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 23 Computer Software (SPSS Inc. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Chicago, USA.2015). Results were expressed in tables and charts. Chi-square test was used to determine significant associations between the qualitative variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


Of the 110 questionnaires given out, only 108 were returned giving a response rate of 98.2%.

The ages of the respondents ranged from 22 to 81 years with a mean ± SD of 39 ± 11 years. Majority (64%) are in the 22–41 age groups, whereas 36% are above 41 years. Majority of the respondents (62, 57.41%) had secondary education, whereas 32 (29.63%) had primary education and others had Qur'anic and post-secondary education as shown in [Table 1]. About 30% of the respondents are traders and about 20% are working in private companies, whereas 18% were civil servants and 14% were farmers as shown in [Figure 1]. Awareness of FP was generally high (100 [92.6%]) as shown in [Figure 2]. Health facilities (47.2%) and media (32.4%) were the main sources of information on FP and majority (54.63%) believed that pregnancy spacing was the main use for FP as shown in [Table 2]. More than one-half (57.4%) of the respondents declined response eliciting the type of FP currently in use by the spouse with only about a quarter (29.6%) reported using FP as shown in [Table 3]. Living in a monogamous setting was significantly associated with awareness of FP as shown in [Table 4], whereas having formal education was significantly associated with positive attitude towards FP as shown in [Table 5]. Marital status, religion and respondents' occupation were not of statistical significance.
Table 1: The sociodemographic characteristics of respondents

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Figure 1: Occupation of the respondents

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Figure 2: Awareness of family planning among respondents

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Table 2: Knowledge of family planning

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Table 3: Practice of family planning among respondents and their wives

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Table 4: Relationship between sociodemographic features and knowledge of family planning

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Table 5: Relationship between sociodemographic features and attitude towards family planning

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  Discussion Top


This study found that the age of the respondents ranged from 22 to 81 years. Majority of the respondents were within the age of 22–41 with a percentage of 64% and 36% of the respondents are above 41 years. This is in keeping with the population pyramid of the developing countries of which Nigeria is a typical example.[11] The family structure of the respondents showed that the majority (52%) were in monogamous unions and the remaining 48% in the polygamous union. This is in contrast to the findings of the study conducted in Ile-Ife, Osun state, where 84% of the respondents were found to be monogamous and 16% in polygamous union.[11] This difference may be linked to the different sociocultural differences with regards to the study arrears. The literacy level of the respondents was relatively high (57.41%) and close to the national figure of 59.6%.[12]

Knowledge of FP was found to be high. This is evident by the fact that 92% of the respondents were aware of FP. Oral contraceptive pills were the most widely known methods (80%), followed by injectable (75%), male condom was known by 73% of the respondents, withdrawal by 55% and intrauterine contraceptive device by 25% in that order. The least known method was Norplant, known by only 11% of the respondents. This can be attributed to an increase in knowledge of most contraceptive methods, such as injectable and condoms mainly through media programmes possibly as a result of efforts from some non-governmental organisations. Majority of those who are aware of the importance of modern contraception (54.63%) believe that the methods are used to space between pregnancies, whereas about a quarter (25%) believe that it is used to prevent unplanned pregnancies. In addition, 4.63% believe that it is also used for preventing high-risk pregnancies and 2.78% believe that it is used to promote a healthy family.

About 65% of the respondents believe that FP is a good practice with 68% approval rate, whereas 33% believe that it is not. Among the latter, 12% consider it a bad practice because it is against religious teachings, 11% believe that it will limit large family size, whereas 18.5% and 7.4% believe that it is against their culture and a Western agenda to control population, respectively. These findings differ from that obtained by Ibrahim and Sadiq.[13] This can be explained mainly by differences in the level of education in the populations.

Respondent's level of education was also shown to positively influence their degree of knowledge on FP and also their attitude towards it. This finding may be due to solely to the effect of education as these classes of people might have been thought about FP while studying and also they are more likely to access materials on FP compared to the nonformally educated (and or uneducated) counterparts.

Even with religious restrictions, attitude towards FP was found to be more among Muslims and those who were not gainfully employed. Reasons for the former could not be found, but the latter could be attributed to the fact that those not gainfully employed were more likely less educated and have lower socioeconomic status.

This study tried to identify the level of knowledge, attitude towards FP and the preferred FP options among men, this is important in the studied setting because of the significant role of men in decision-making related to reproductive health issues and therefore the result may provide an insight into the preferred method and therefore can influence the supply by stakeholders. Similarly, these data are lacking locally on the subject matter. However, the study is limited by the paucity of data on similar topic locally.


  Conclusions Top


FP knowledge, attitude and preferred method among men in Dorayi is relatively higher than popular assumptions. However, health education needs to be intensified to encourage the practice of FP.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Anyanyu JI, Eskay M, Ezegbe BN. Family planning in Nigeria : A myth or reality? Implications for education. J Educ Practice 2013;4:108-14.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ross J, Hardee K. Access to contraceptive methods and prevalence of use. J Biosoc Sci 2013;45:761-78.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Campbell S, Monga A. Contraception. Gynecology by Ten Teachers. 18th ed. United Kingdom: Arnold Publishers; 2000. p. 65-74.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Abiona TC, Afolabi OT, Esimai OA, Ijadunola KT, Ijadunola MY, Olaolorun FM. Male Involvement in Family Planning Decision Making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2010;14:45-52.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bayray A. Assessment of male involvement in family planning use among men in South Eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Scholarly Journal of Medicine 2012;2:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mustafa G, Azmat SK, Hameed W, Ali S, Ishaque M, Hussain W, et al. Family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married men and women in rural areas of Pakistan: Findings from a qualitative need assessment study. Int J Reprod Med 2015;2015:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gabriel M, Ofomegbe D. Knowledge attitude and practice of family planning among air men in the Sam Ethnan Air Force Base, Ikeja, Lagos. Int Multidiscip J 2015;9:183-98.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Abdulkadir MI, Yusuf MA. Assessment of households' biodegradable solid waste in parts of Kano Metropolis. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2016;10:01-13.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Cochran's Sample Size Formula. Available from: https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/probability-and-statistics/find-sample-size/. [Last accessed on 2019 May 15].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Health Communicating Capacity Collaborative, Assessment of Family Planning Use in Bauchi and Sokoto States; 2015. p. 25-45.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Adebayo S, Anyanti J, Ipadeola O, Ujuju C. Investigating claims of contraceptive failure among women of reproductive age in Nigeria: Findings from a national survey. Scholarly Journal of Medicine 2013;3:124-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nigeria Adult Literacy Rate. Available from: https://knoema.com/atlas/Nigeria/topics/Education/Literacy/Adult-literacy-rate. [Last accessed on 2019 May 15].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ibrahim MT, Sadiq AU. Knowledge, attitude, practices and beliefs about family planning among women attending primary health care clinics in Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian J Med 1999;8:154-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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