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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 164-166

Cor pulmonale in an unusual case of obstructive adenoid enlargement

1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Pediatrics, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Emmanuel S Kolo
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njbcs.njbcs_11_18

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Enlargement and infection of the adenoids and tonsils are associated with problems of otitis media, sinusitis, obstructive sleep disordered breathing, and alterations of facial growth. In addition, they may also lead to cardiopulmonary disorders in children. This report aims to highlight the cardiopulmonary sequelae in a child with obstructive adenoid enlargement and temporomandibular joint ankylosis in our practice. The child presented at 6 years of age with complaints of noisy breathing, blocked nose, mouth breathing, and loud snoring. Her condition deteriorated with frequent apneic attacks, easy fatigability, and swelling of the legs. The blood pressure was 100/60 mmHg, the jugular venous pressure was elevated, with displaced apex beat at the sixth left intercostal space, anterior axillary line, with parasternal heave. There were first and second heart sounds with a loud P2. The findings on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram confirmed a diagnosis of cor pulmonale secondary to severe obstructive adenotonsillar disease. A flexible nasopharyngoscopy revealed a bilateral grade IV adenoidal obstruction of the choanae. She was managed for heart failure and had emergency tracheostomy. Subsequently, she had endoscopic transnasal microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy. She has improved remarkably and on follow-ups at the ENT, pediatric, and MFU clinics. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, even though rare, are possible complications of untreated adenotonsillar hypertrophy in children.

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