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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 87-91

Job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary center in kano, Northwestern Nigeria


Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication23-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Emmanuel S Kolo
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njbcs.njbcs_31_17

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  Abstract 


Background: Job satisfaction has been associated with lots of benefits. The provision of health services depends on several factors but the availability and retention of human resources is particularly important. This study aims to determine job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital in Kano and find if there are any, determining or related factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and June, 2017 on health workers working at a tertiary hospital in Kano, Nigeria. A modified closed-ended self-administered job satisfaction survey questionnaire was used. Data collected were analyzed with IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21 Windows statistical software. Results: The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 62 years with a mean age of 38.94 ± 8.07 years. There were 119 (74.4%) males and 41 (25.4%) females with a male/female (M:F) ratio of 3:1 (χ2 = 19.415; P= 0.000). Overall, out of the 157 (98.1%) of the participants that responded to the job satisfaction question, 142 (90.4%) indicated they were satisfied with their jobs and 15 (9.6%) were dissatisfied. Satisfaction based on sociodemographic variables showed that there were no significant associations between them. There were also no significant associations between the professional categories, years in service, monthly salary, job schedule of the participants, and job satisfaction. The main reasons for job satisfaction were monetary and service to humanity. Conclusion: Majority of health workers in Kano were highly satisfied with their jobs because of the need to serve and also for the income.

Keywords: Healthcare, job, Kano, Nigeria, satisfaction


How to cite this article:
Kolo ES. Job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary center in kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2018;15:87-91

How to cite this URL:
Kolo ES. Job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary center in kano, Northwestern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Jun 16];15:87-91. Available from: https://www.njbcs.net/text.asp?2018/15/1/87/228364




  Introduction Top


Job satisfaction refers to how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. In other words, it is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs.[1],[2]

Job satisfaction has been associated with lots of benefits such as building up employee motivation, improved performance, efficiency, and workforce retention.[3],[4],[5],[6] On the contrary, job dissatisfaction has been found to cause poor productivity, employee absenteeism, workers burn out, job migration, and a poor feeling of wellbeing.[7],[8],[9]

Globally, the provision of health services depends on several factors such as human resources, delivery systems, and health infrastructures. In particular, the availability of human resources is adjudged to be the most important variable.[1] In Nigeria, despite the shortage of healthcare professionals and a high disease burden,[5] the health sector has recently been plagued with incessant labor crisis. Regrettably, the key issues always revolve around diverse agitations by the various interest groups within the health system and to some extent lack of commitment by the government in resolving these issues. In addition, the current economic crunch, changes in health leadership, and inconsistent health policies appear to be a fertile ground that can significantly impact on job satisfaction in workplace and by implication on effective delivery of healthcare services. As such, studies that will focus critically on these issues logically become imperative in order to improve the human capacity development in the health sector and possibly prevent the ever impending brain drain. Hence, in order to strengthen the already weak health system in Nigeria and also attain the health-related millennium development goals, it is necessary to identify those factors that can affect job satisfaction among the health workers.

Previous studies in some parts of the world and Nigeria have reported different levels of job satisfaction and several determinants among healthcare professionals.[1],[5],[10] However, of note is the fact that the studies in our environment were limited and carried out long before the recent crisis in the health sector and the biting economic recession. More so, some authors have also reported that there is still no consensus about the recent job satisfaction trends in most parts of the world.[6]

This study aims to determine job satisfaction among healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital in Kano and find if there are any determining or related factors.


  Materials and Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted between May and June, 2017 on health workers working at a tertiary hospital in Kano, Nigeria. Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital remains the busiest and most equipped tertiary healthcare center in Kano State and caters for the health needs of over 10 million people in the state and also for the other neighboring states. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the hospital. Participation in the study was voluntary and an informed consent was obtained from all the participants.

Those included were all categories of health professionals who were present and working in the hospital during the study period and those who were absent or reluctant to participate in the study were excluded.

The workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital were grouped according to their professional status. Participants were selected by taking a simple random selection from each professional group taking their population into consideration.

A modified closed-ended self-administered job satisfaction survey questionnaire was used to collect data for this study.[1] This tool was pretested on 20 health professionals at the hospital prior to data collection. The areas assessed in the questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, facilities at the workplace, nature of work, salary, promotion, professional training, interpersonal relationships and co-workers, and intention to leave the job.

To assess job satisfaction, we used the Job Satisfaction Scale.[11] This is a 5-point Likert scale: strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree. For the purpose of analysis, the responses were collapsed into three: agree, undecided, and disagree. The proportion (P) of health professionals who were satisfied was calculated using

P = number of satisfied participants divided by the total number of participants multiplied by 100.

Data collected were entered into a computer and analyzed with IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21 Windows statistical software (IBM Co., Armonk NY, USA). Chi-square test was used to evaluate association of different variables with job satisfaction, and P value < 0.05, at 95% confidence interval (CI) was taken as cut-off point for statistical significance.


  Results Top


This was a cross-sectional study conducted on employees of a tertiary hospital in Kano, Nigeria. Participants consisted of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, administrative office workers, and other paramedics. Of the 201 administered questionnaires, 160 were completed and returned, giving a response rate of 79.6%. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 62 years with a mean age of 38.94 ± 8.07 years. There were 119 (74.4%) males and 41 (25.4%) females with a M:F ratio of 3:1 (χ2 = 19.415; P = 0.000). Most of the participants, 93 (62.0%) were in the age group <40 years. One hundred and thirty seven (88.4%) of the respondents were married and majority 127 (84.1%) were of Hausa/Fulani ethnic group. [Figure 1] shows the occupational categories of the participants. Overall, out of the 157 (98.1%) of the participants that responded to the job satisfaction question, 142 (90.4%) indicated they were satisfied with their jobs and 15 (9.6%) were dissatisfied (P = 0.000). Satisfaction based on sociodemographic variables showed there were no significant associations between them [Table 1].
Figure 1: The occupational categories of the participants in the study

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Table 1: Job satisfaction versus sociodemographic parameters of the participants

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[Table 2] shows job satisfaction versus professional characteristics of the participants. It showed that there were no significant associations between the professional categories, years in service, monthly salary, and job schedule of the participants and job satisfaction. The main reasons for job satisfaction and future plans of the participants are shown in [Table 3].
Table 2: Job satisfaction versus professional characteristics of the participants

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Table 3: Reasons for job satisfaction and future plans of health care participants in Kano

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  Discussion Top


In spite of a high disease burden in most African countries, provision of healthcare services can best be adjudged to be largely inadequate and ineffective. Possible reasons include challenges related to leadership and governance, health workforce, medical products, technologies, financing, and services delivery. Arguably, an extreme shortage of health workers in particular is a major cause for concern among other factors. The ability of our health institutions to also recruit and retain these much needed man power is clearly influenced by several factors.

In this study, we found that majority of the participants were satisfied with their jobs. That is to say, 90.4% of the participants indicated they were satisfied with the jobs they are doing. In line with our findings, Butawa et al.[12] in a similar study in Zaria reported a high level of job satisfaction among health workers. In contrast, Ene et al.[13] in a similar study in Abuja Nigeria found majority of the health workers were dissatisfied with their jobs. Although, it is pertinent to note that the study in Abuja involved only primary healthcare workers. Likewise, Yami et al.[1] in a related study in Ethiopia found majority of their health workers were dissatisfied with their jobs.

The major reasons we found in this study for job satisfaction were satisfaction in helping others and monetary rewards (income). Our findings are comparable to that of other workers in Zaria, Nigeria that found service and income to be significantly associated with job satisfaction among other factors.[12] Possible reasons for this finding might be the general belief among most Nigerians (health workers inclusive) that working in the health sector is purely a selfless and privileged service to humanity. Hence, health workers are recognized as potential leaders, deeply appreciated, and respected in our society. In addition, the current economic hardship in the country and the need to make ends meet might be responsible for the financial considerations on the part of the health workers. More so, the remunerations of health workers in most institutions in our country are considered far better than that of an average worker in some other sectors. Interestingly, not only in our society are health workers respected and their services appreciated but also in other countries. For instance, in Mainland China, nurses were often referred to as “White Angels” for their contributions to human health during the period of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003.[14]

Ironically, in spite of the high level of job satisfaction found among health workers in this study, Nigeria and even this tertiary health center has recently suffered from incessant health workers strikes.[15] Possible reasons include the fall backs of trade unionism. In other words, the national leaderships of trade unions usually compel other health centers to go on solidarity strikes irrespective of their local positions or peculiarity. Moreover, a recent study has reported that 92% of health worker strikes in Nigeria are related to healthcare leadership and management issues than conditions at the workplace.[15]

In this study, even though all categories of health workers were highly satisfied with their jobs; we found no significant association between job satisfaction and the professional categories of the participants. Our findings corroborate that of Yami et al.[1] in a related study on health workers in Ethiopia. In contrast, Ugwa et al.[16] in a similar study found that nurses were generally more satisfied with their jobs than the doctors. In fact, in another study they found that Nigerian nurses were generally more satisfied (as high as 92%) with their jobs when compared with their colleagues in some other African countries.[17] However, Asuquo et al.[18] in a related study in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria found a large proportion of nurses were dissatisfied with their jobs and attributed it to low pay, poor working conditions, and lack of motivation.

Regarding the future plans of the health workers, this study found that majority plan to stay on their jobs (76.0%) and were not considering engaging in other part-time jobs (75.8%). In contrast, other researchers in a similar study have reported that a large proportion of health workers intended to leave their jobs at the slightest opportunity.[1] In our study, it is conceivable, however, that the decision of majority to stay on their present jobs might not be unconnected to the fact that most (90.4%) were satisfied with their jobs. Moreover, the current scarcity of jobs even in the health sector and the present economic hardship in the country might influence their decisions not to leave.

In conclusion, majority of health workers in a tertiary health center in Kano were found to be highly satisfied with their jobs because of the need to serve and also for the income. Notwithstanding, it is desirable for the hospital managements to engage their workers in frequent dialogues in order to improve the existing conditions of service in our hospitals in order to maintain job satisfaction. Although, the unending crises and brain drain currently rocking the health sector in recent times in Nigeria leaves much to be desired. Moreover, our participants were limited to health workers in a tertiary hospital in Kano, and therefore the generalization of our findings needs to be treated with caution. Hence, there is a need for more studies in other centers in Nigeria to find other possible compounding variables.

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank the entire staff of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital for their cooperation during the course of this study. I also thank Mallam Umar for typing the manuscript of this work.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
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Butawa NN, Sule AG, Omole VN, Yere JK, Dogo M, Gyuro J. Assessment of job satisfaction among health workers in a tertiary hospital in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Savannah J Med Res Pract 2013;2.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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