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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-89

Preference and views on lecture delivery methods of clinical students in Bayero University Medical School


Department of Paediatrics, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication10-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
M O Asani
Department of Paediatrics, Bayero University, Kano
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0331-8540.169291

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  Abstract 

Background: Lectures are essential parts of undergraduate medical education for the transfer of information to students. The traditional method of lecture delivery is widely practiced while some lecturers prefer the use of multimedia powerpoint. Objectives: This study intends to find out the preference and views on lecture delivery methods among the clinical students of Bayero University Medical School. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving the 400, 500 and 600 levels students. Self-administered pretested questionnaires were administered. Data were analysed by the use of frequencies and percentages. The difference between the various classes was analysed using one-way ANOVA with a P < 0.05 considered to be significant. Results: The age range is between 20 and 41 years with a mean age of 24.9 ± 2.91. There are 171 males and 90 females with a male: female ratio of 1.9:1. The predominant method of lecture delivery by teachers is the use of multimedia powerpoint, 215 (82.4%). Most of the students, 185 (70.9%) prefer a combination of the traditional and powerpoint methods, whereas 13 (12.6%) prefer the use of powerpoint while a minority 33 (5%), the traditional method. Majority, 181 (69.3%) are of the view that the duration of lectures should not exceed 1 h. Conclusion: A combination of the traditional method and multimedia powerpoint is the preferred lecture delivery method of Bayero University clinical students and they opined that lectures should not exceed an hour.

Keywords: Bayero University, Kano, lecture delivery methods


How to cite this article:
Asani M O, Peter I. Preference and views on lecture delivery methods of clinical students in Bayero University Medical School. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2015;12:86-9

How to cite this URL:
Asani M O, Peter I. Preference and views on lecture delivery methods of clinical students in Bayero University Medical School. Niger J Basic Clin Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Jun 23];12:86-9. Available from: https://www.njbcs.net/text.asp?2015/12/2/86/169291


  Introduction Top


The word Lecture is derived from the Latin word 'lectus' which can be interpreted as 'to read' and the act of reading dated back to the 15th century. Merriam–Webster online dictionary defined lecture as a discourse given before an audience or class especially for instruction. Gazi and Laskar [1] also defined lecture as a carefully prepared oral presentation of facts, organised thoughts and ideas delivered by a qualified person to students or participants. Lectures are essential parts of undergraduate medical education and remain an important tool for the transfer of information to students.[2] They are given to provide a framework of knowledge to students who are then expected to search for extra information on the subject being taught.[3]

Despite its major role in the undergraduate medical education, lectures are known to have several limitations including a passive mode of learning, lack of effective feedback from students and are sometimes boring. The traditional method of lecture delivery where the lecturer simply reads out already prepared notes on the subject is still practiced today; however, some lecturers still prefer the use of multimedia software presentation like Microsoft PowerPoint. Onotai et al.[4] in a study done among the medical students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria found that lecture delivery with the use of multimedia Microsoft PowerPoint was the preferred mode of lecture delivery. Their finding is similar to studies done elsewhere.[5],[6] Multimedia Microsoft PowerPoint is credited to have the ability to integrate text, pictures and images thus improving the educational value of the subject and, therefore, creating an active learning process.[7],[8] Several disadvantages of PowerPoint presentations have also been identified such as high speed and neglect of interaction between lecturer and students.[6]

In the clinical departments of Bayero University Medical School, the duration of lectures varies between 1 and 2 h.

This study intends to find out the preference and views on lecture delivery methods among the clinical students of Bayero University Medical School. The outcome of this study will not only aid learning but assist the lecturers in achieving their set out learning objectives.

To our knowledge, no study has been done on the preference and views of lecture delivery methods among the clinical students of the Bayero University Medical School, Kano, Nigeria.


  Materials and Methods Top


This is a cross-sectional observational study involving the 400, 500 and 600 levels clinical students of the Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University Kano. Ethical approval was sought from the appropriate authority of the university. The questionnaire was pretested before being administered to the students. The self-administered questionnaires were shared after a careful explanation of the research and consent obtained. The questionnaire administered was divided into the four subsections. The first subsection involves basic biodata and the subsequent subsections contain questions on preference and views on the available lecture delivery methods.

Data analysis

All data derived from the questionnaire were entered into using Microsoft excel 2007 and analysed by the use of frequencies and percentages. The difference between the various classes was analysed by Statististical Pakcage for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chigaco, 111) using one-way ANOVA and a P < 0.05 considered to be significant.


  Result Top


A total of 261 students responded, out of a total of 292 students giving a response rate of 89.4%. The mean age of the students is 24.9 ± 2.91 years, and there are 171 males and 90 females with a M: F ratio of 1.9:1 [Table 1]. The multimedia power point method is the predominant method of lecture delivery (82.64%) used by teachers of Bayero University medical school [Figure 1]. Most of the students (70.9%) prefer a combination of the traditional method and powerpoint for lecture delivery method, whereas 12.6% prefer the use of powerpoint while a minority (5%), the traditional method of lecture delivery [Figure 2].
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the students

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Figure 1: Methods of lectures delivery

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Figure 2: Overall preference of lecture delivery methods

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Views of students about the traditional method

I prefer the lecturer to dictate his notes to me

42.6% of the students prefer with this method of lecture delivery while 47.2% disagree. The remaining (10.2%) students were undecided. There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 7.96, P = 0.0001).

I prefer the lecturer to pause and explain some salient points during the lecture

The majority of the students (92.7%) prefer this mode of lecture delivery while a minority (6.5%) objected to it. There was no significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 0.19, P = 0.83).

Hand out should be provided after the lecture session

About ½ (52.5%) of the students prefer that handouts should be given to them after the lecture but a third are of the contrary while 14.2% are undecided. There was no significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 0.19, P = 0.83).

Ideally, lectures should not exceed 1 h

Using the traditional method of lecture delivery, the majority of the students (69.3%) prefer a lecture period of not over an hour while only 22.3% disagree. The rest (8.4%) were undecided on the preference of lecture period. There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 7.44, P = 0.001).

This method provides adequate time for questions

About two-third (67.8%) of the students believe that this method of lecture delivery provide ample time for questions, but 14.5% did not agree while 17.6% are unsure. There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 4.64, P = 0.01).

Views of students about the multimedia Microsoft PowerPoint presentation

Most of the lecturers just read through the slides without spending time to explain salient details

Most of the students (65.2%) are of the view that lecturers did not spend enough time to explain the salient issues on the slides. About a quarter (26.9%) did not agree with this view. There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 2.97, P = 0.053).

Handout should be provided after the lecture session

After the lecture delivery using the multimedia powerpoint method, 67.8% prefer having a handout given to them, while 22% are of the contrary. There was no significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 1.75, P = 0.18).

This method provides adequate time for questions

About the same numbers of students agree and disagree about this merit of powerpoint, 38.3% and 37.9%, respectively while 23.8% were undecided. There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 0.95, P = 0.39).

This method increases my concentration during lectures

45.2% did not agree that this method of lecture delivery increases their concentration while 36% agree, 18.8% are unsure. There was no significant difference among the different levels of the study (F = 1.7, P = 0.2).

Ideally, lectures should not exceed 1 h

The majority of the student (70.2%) are of the view that the lectures using multimedia powerpoint should not exceed 1 h, while 19.2% disagree. 400 level (55%), 500 level (79%) and 600 level (71%) (F = 4.17, P = 0.02). There was a significant difference among the different levels of the study.


  Discussion Top


The predominant method of lecture delivery by teachers in the Bayero University Medical School is the multimedia powerpoint (82.4%) [Figure 1]. This is in contrast to the Port Harcourt Medical School [4] where the traditional method is still the predominant method of lecture delivery (74.6%).

According to Onotai et al.[4] and Naqvi et al.,[9] the selection of lecture delivery method is determined by a variety of factors including availability of necessary facilities, lecture topic, students' population, the environment and especially the lecturers' personal preference.

In this study, the majority of the students (70.9%) prefer a combination of the traditional and power point methods for lecture delivery whereas 12.6% prefer the use of power point only. Our finding is similar to those of Chopra et al.[10] where 70.4% also preferred a combination of both methods. However, our findings were in contrast to those of Hashmi et al.[11] where the majority (79%) of the students prefer the multimedia method and Onotai et al.[4] where 69.5% of the medical students prefer the traditional method, although the questionnaires used in these studies did not give the option of a combination of both traditional method and powerpoint as a lecture delivery method.

The traditional or chalk and talk method and the multimedia powerpoint methods have their individual merits and drawbacks. The learning objectives should determine the best method of lecture delivery. If the objectives are to retain complex graphics, e.g., anatomy, flow charts animation and figures; multimedia powerpoint is the preferred method, whereas if the objectives are to retain information through interactive dialogue and explanation, the traditional method is a superior method.[12]

In this study, the majority (70%) of the students are of the view that the duration of lectures should not exceed 1 h. The ideal lecture duration period has been a topic of several researches.[13],[14],[15] Badave and Dhanajay [12] stated that the majority of the students opined that the ideal lecture period should be between 40 and 50 min. Similarly, Kulkarni et al.[14] in their work stated an ideal lecture duration study of 45 min. Stuart and Rutherford [15] stated that students' concentration rose steadily to reach a maximum in 10–15 min and fell steadily thereafter. They suggested a maximum duration of 30 min. These studies [13],[14],[15] emphasise the futility of marathon lecture periods in the classroom for the purpose of covering large course content. Generally, most students (70%) at all levels agree that the duration of the lecture should not exceed 1 h, which was significantly different among the classes. The reasons why fewer students in the 400 level of study agree that the lecture period should not exceed 1 h is not clear, but it is worthy to note that in the 1st year of clinical postings, emphasis is placed mainly on bedside and ward round teachings, instead of lectures.

The importance of limiting the period of lectures was emphasised by Clark and Meyer [16] who stated that the visual and auditory channels are the routes for processing information and too much information entering either or both channels may lead to cognitive overload with the resultant reduction in the assimilation of information.[16]

Most of the students (65.2%) are of the view that the lecturers, who use the multi-media powerpoint method, did not spend enough time to explain the salient issues on the slides, which is a major drawback of the use of this method.[6] In an attempt to cover the scope of lecture topics, there may be a tendency to use many slides to illustrate and explain the course content. On the contrary, 67.8% of the students opined that the traditional methods provide adequate time for questioning. This is a major advantage of this method, which provides optimal interaction, between the teacher and the students.


  Conclusion Top


A combination of the traditional and multimedia powerpoint methods is the preferred lecture delivery method of Bayero University Kano clinical students and they opined that the lectures should not exceed an hour.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Gazi EA, Laskar MS. Art of lecture in medical education. Bangladesh Med J Khulna 2013;46:24-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Billings-Gagliardi S, Mazor KM. Student decisions about lecture attendance: Do electronic course materials matter? Acad Med 2007;82 10 Suppl: S73-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ghazali RA, Ishak I, Saat M, Arfin R, Hamid A, Rosli Y, et al. Students' perception on lecture delivery effectiveness among the faculty of health sciences lecturers. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2012;60:67-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Onotai LO, Tabansi PN, Asuquo EO. Medical students' perception of traditional method and power point use for lecture delivery at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Educ Res 2012;3:576-82.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Susskind JE. Power point's power in the classroom: Enhancing students' self efficacy and attitudes. Comput Educ 2005;45:203-15.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Cassady JC. Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer aided lectures in undergraduate university courses. J Educ Comput Res 1998;19:175-89.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mayer RE, Anderson RB. The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. J Educ Psychol 1992;84:444-52.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Xingeng D, Jianxiang L. Advantages and disadvantages of powerpoint in lectures to Science students. I J Educ Manag Eng 2012;9:61-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Naqvi SH, Mobasher F, Afzal MA, Umair M, Kohli AN, Bukhari MH. Effectiveness of teaching methods in a medical institute: Perceptions of medical students to teaching aids. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63:859-64.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Chopra J, Rani A, Rani A, Deewan R, Srivastava A, Sharma P. Students' reflections on teaching methodology in anatomy. Asian J Med Sci 2014;5:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Hashmi NR, Daud S, Manzoor I. Medical education: Views and recommendations by final year MBBS students of a private medical college in Lahore. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010;20:93-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Savoy A, Proctor R, Salvendry G. Information retention form Powerpoint and traditional lectures. Comput Educ 2009;52:858-67.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Babave G, Dhananjay K. Evaluation of lecture as a large group teaching method in undergraduate medical curriculum: Student's perspecture. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2014;3:11567-72.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kulkarni R, Ashwini A, Reddy B. Student perception on lectures in medical education. Anat Karnataka 2011;5:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Stuart J, Rutherford RJ. Medical student concentration during lectures. Lancet 1978;2:514-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Clark RC, Meyer RE. E learning and the science of introduction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. In: Applying the Modality Principle. 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey, United States: John Wiley and Sons; 2011. p. 122.  Back to cited text no. 16
    


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