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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 79-83

Association of lip print and sex among Nigerians


1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria
2 Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria PMB Samaru Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria PMB Samaru Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication12-Mar-2013

Correspondence Address:
Magaji Garba Taura
Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Kano state P.M.B 3011 Kano
Nigeria
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Source of Support: Bayero University research grant., Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0331-8540.108470

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  Abstract 

Background: The use of prints as a mean of personal identification is one of the common methods in forensic anthropology and the most popular prints are fingerprints. The second print of interest is lip prints, which are normal lines and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of human lip. The study was aimed to determine association of lip prints types and sex among Nigerian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 820 subjects (414 males and 406 females) participated in the study. The lip prints were obtained on microscopic glass slide and developed using carbon black powder, after which the print was divided into 10 quadrants and analyzed using magnifying lens. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Results: The result shows the percentage distribution of lip prints in males with highest prevalence of type V (31.28%) and the least of type I' (0.55%). In females type V (31.50%) was predominant while the least was type I' (0.59%). The statistically significant association of lip prints types with sex in all the lip quadrants ( P < 0.001) was found, except in lower right lateral (LRL) and upper median (UM 0 ) quadrants. Conclusion: The lip print was found to be statistically associated with sex. Hence, lip prints can hold potential promise as supplementary tool in personal identification.

Keywords: Carbon powder, forensic anthropology, lip print, Nigeria, sex


How to cite this article:
Adamu LH, Taura MG, Hamman WO, Ojo SA, Dahiru AU, Sadeeq AA, Ibrahim AD. Association of lip print and sex among Nigerians. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2012;9:79-83

How to cite this URL:
Adamu LH, Taura MG, Hamman WO, Ojo SA, Dahiru AU, Sadeeq AA, Ibrahim AD. Association of lip print and sex among Nigerians. Niger J Basic Clin Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Dec 7];9:79-83. Available from: https://www.njbcs.net/text.asp?2012/9/2/79/108470


  Introduction Top


Lips are two highly sensitive mobile folds, composed of skin, muscles, glands and mucous membrane. They surround the oral orifice and form the anterior boundary of the oral cavity. Anatomically, the surface that forms the oral sphincter is the lip area. There is an upper lip and a lower lip. [1],[2]

The biological phenomenon of systems of furrows on the red part of human lips was first noted by anthropologists; R. Fischer was the first to describe it in 1902. [3] Use of lip prints in personal identification and criminalization was first recommended in France by Edmond Locard. [1] Lip prints are normal lines and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of human lip between the inner labial mucosa and outer skin. The appearance of lip prints, like fingerprints vary from person to person. [4]

The most commonly used classification scheme of lip-prints was introduced by Suzuki and Tsuchihashi. [5] These are: Type I; a clear-cut groove vertically above the lips, type I' ; a partial-length groove of type I, type II; a branched groove, type III; an intersected groove, type IV; a reticular pattern and finally type V; other types.

Research studies and information regarding the use of lip prints as evidence in personal identification and criminal investigations, although old, are scanty. [6] There is need to establish a database of lip print for all individuals in localities, which may serve as a reference data in civil litigation, criminal cases and research purposes. [7] To our knowledge there is no documented data on lip prints in Nigeria.

Accordingly, this study and subsequent studies can be utilized as a source of reference data among Nigerian population. It can also be used as simple noninvasive and non-expensive means of personal identification among Nigerian population. Although some studies carried out by other workers like Gondivkar, et al.,[8] which showed high level of accuracy of lip prints in sex prediction among Maharashtra populations, Ramandeep, et al.[9] found 86.4% as level of accuracy of lip prints in sex determination among Punjab populations. The aims of this study were to determine the percentage distribution of lip print patterns and association of the lip prints types and sex among Nigerians.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study was conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University Demonstration secondary school, Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria for a period of 4 weeks. Kaduna state was the head quarter of northern Nigeria, located in Northwestern part of Nigeria, and one of its local governments is Zaria, within which is a famous University, the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Data was collected on 820 subjects (414 males and 406 females) aged 12-20 years from Demonstration secondary school Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, using a questionnaire. All the participants were apparently healthy subjects with absence of external congenital malformations, physical deformities, or inflammation.

The subjects were made to stand in a relax position and the lips were cleaned with tissue paper. Care was taken to ensure that no traces of the tissue paper were left on the lips. A clear new microscopic glass slide was placed on the relaxed lips of the subject in a single motion. The glass slide was then removed from the surface of the lip and carbon black powder was poured on the surface of the slide which was in contact with the lips, then the excess powder was dusted by mouth blow; this led to the production of well developed lip prints on the slide that was ready for preservation and analyses. The glass slide was then placed on an area provided on the questionnaire (with left and right, superior and inferior sides in consideration). Finally, a transparent cello tape was used to cover the print as well as attaching the slide to the questionnaire. Care was taken to avoid formation of bubbles and wrinkles on the glass slide. [10] For analysis, the print was divided into five quadrants for both lower and upper lip for an accurate estimation of the lip prints as seen in [Figure 1]. This is a modification of the Hassan and Fahamy [11] method in which the lip was divided into six estimation quadrants.
Figure 1: Lip prints divided into ten quadrants ready for analyses. ULL = Upper left lateral, LLL = Lower left lateral, ULM = upper left medial, LLM = Lower left middle), UM0 = Upper median, LM0= Lower median, upper, URM = Upper right medial, LRM = Lower right middle), URL = Upper right lateral LRL = Lower right lateral quadrants

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The percentage of the lip prints pattern was calculated as:



Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables. Level of significance was considered at P < 0.05. The analysis was carried out using Analyse-it statistical software for Microsoft Excel, version 2.26, 2012.


  Results Top


In [Table 1], the percentage distribution of lip print shows that the most frequent lip pattern in the entire study population was Type V with 31.39%, followed by Type III (24.18%), Type IV (18.70%), Type I (14.87%), Type II (10.29%), and the least was Type I' (0.57%).
Table 1: Percentage distribution of types of lip prints on different quadrants (10) on both lips among Nigerian population (n=820)

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In [Table 2] and [Table 3], it was observed that in males, the most frequent pattern was Type V with 31.28%, followed by Type III (26.62%), Type I (15.99%), Type IV (14.44%), Type II (11.11%) with Type I' having the least percentage of 0.55%. In females, Type V was predominant with 31.50% followed by Type IV (23.03%), Type III (21.70%), Type I (13.72%), Type II (9.46%), and Type I' (0.59%).
Table 2: Percentage distribution of types of lip prints on different quadrants (10) on both lips of male Nigerian population (n=414)

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Table 3: Percentage distribution of types of lip prints on different quadrants (10) on both lips of female Nigerian population (n=406)

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[Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12] and [Table 13] below show association of sex and quadrants of the lips in which the following quadrants show statistically significant association with sex as follows ULL (χ2 = 27.01, P < 0.0001), ULM (χ2 = 28.28, P < 0.0001), URM (χ2 = 21.12, P = 0.0008), URL (χ2 = 23.20, P = 0.0003), LML (χ2 = 17.23, P = 0.0041), LM02 = 14.26, P = 0.0140), LRM (χ2 = 24.84, P = 0.0001), while the LRR and UM0 show no statistically significant association ( P > 0.05)
Table 4: Association of sex and upper left lateral (ULL) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 5: Association of sex and upper left medial (ULM) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 6: Association of sex and upper median (UM0) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 7: Association of sex and upper right medial (URM) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 8: Association of sex and upper right lateral (URL) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 9: Association of sex and lower left lateral (LLL) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 10: Association of sex and lower left medial (LLM) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 11: Association of sex and lower median (LM0) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)


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Table 12: Association of sex and lower right medial (LRM) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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Table 13: Association of sex and lower right lateral (LRL) quadrant among Nigerian population (n=820)

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  Discussion Top


The study of lip prints is one of the upcoming tools in forensic sciences. Lip prints are unique and do not change in the life time of an individual. [12] However, major trauma to the lip may lead to scarring and pathosis, which may alter the wrinkles and grooves of the lips of an individual. [13] It has also been suggested that variations in types of lip prints among males and females could help in sex determination. [14]

In the present study, the percentage distribution of lip prints according to sexes show that males had higher prevalence of type V (31.28%) and the least was type I' (0.55%). In females, type V (31.50%) was predominant while the least was type I' (0.59%). This result shows a slight variation from the finding of other workers in the field.

In the studies of Hassan and Fahmy, [11] it was found that Type (IIa) was the most frequent in the upper lip in males with 39%., while Type (IV) was the most frequent type in the upper lip in females 44.4%. Types (Ia) and (IIc) were of a higher percentage (32.2%) in the lower lip in males. Type (Ia) was the most frequent in the female lower lip. Weil et al.[15] reported that inheritance of lip prints in cleft lip and palate in children shows the following pattern among the parents. In fathers: Type (IIa) is significantly higher in the upper lip than in mothers. Type (IIa) was significantly higher in both the upper and lower lips. Type V was significantly higher in mothers than in fathers.

It was reported that the majority of males had type II lip prints (31.61%) and few had type IV lip print (0.57%). It was also recorded that females had high percentage of Type II lip prints (43.79%) and the least percentage of type IV (0.99%); [16] it was also found that Type III (38%) was the most common print and Type IV (12%) the least. [6] Other findings show that Type IV (33.25%) was the most frequent and Type V (1.88%) the least. [17] Another study in Mumbai found that Type I was the most common in females in the lower lips and that males tend to have different patterns in all quadrants and the females tend to have the same patterns in all quadrant. [12],[14]

In the El Domiaty et al.,[7] study, a total of 72.67% of lip prints showed the same groove pattern in the upper right and upper left areas (78.89% of females and 64.79% of males), while 75.36% of the prints showed the same groove pattern in the lower right and lower left areas (74.81% of females and 76.06% of males). Nine types of grooves were recorded in Saudi lips. The groove type, horizontal with other forms was the highest recorded (68.7% in females and 42.7% in males).

A study in Amballa revealed the following observations: in males 25.29% had Type I, 31.61% with Type II, 14.94% with Type III, 0.57% with Type IV, and 27.59% with Type V lip prints. In females 22.89% had Type I, 43.79% with Type II, 12.94% with Type III, 0.99% with Type IV, and 19.40% with Type V lip prints. [18] Among the Andhra Pradesh population in India, the predominant pattern was branched type, 49% in males and 40% in females followed by reticular pattern, 40% in males and 31% in females and vertical pattern 11% in males and 29% in females. [19]

These findings were not similar with the present study. These variations of the lip prints may be linked to the genetic and to some extent environmental influences, which vary with respect to different races. Hence, this can add value to lip print in the forensic science community as a powerful tool in personal identification.

Establishment of association between two variables in the forensic sciences is of paramount importance. When considering the sex and lip prints, it was observed that sex was statistically associated with all the 10 quadrants of the lips with the exception of UM0 and LRL quadrants. This finding is similar to the results observed by Vijay et al.,[20] in which lip prints show sexual dimorphism, out of 50 subjects, 14 and 21 subjects were correctly identified as male and female, respectively. Satyanarayana et al. [21] studied lip prints of 40 (20 males and 20 females) participants. Seventeen and 18 subjects were correctly identified as males and females, respectively which showed high level of accuracy (90% for females and 85% for males) of lip prints in sex determination. Ramandeep et al.[9] also found 86.40% as level of accuracy of lip prints in sex determination among the Punjab population of India. Gondivker et al. [8] also showed high degree of lip prints in sex prediction among Maharashtra population. Although the workers generally considered the LM0 quadrant as the study area, since it is the most frequently encountered lip part in the criminal scene according to Sivapathasundram et al.[12] but in the present study we analyzed the rest of the quadrants and most of them were found to be statistically associated with sex, including LM0 quadrant. Additional quadrants such as ULL, UML, UMR, URL, and LMR were more highly associated than the LM0 quadrant thus adding value to the forensic use of the lip prints especially in sex determination.

The association of lip print with sex shows high level of sexual dimorphism in pattern of lip prints between sexes, which may be linked to the differences in genetic make up between males and females especially in the sex chromosome. This is also one of the factors responsible for the phenotypic difference between male and female. The lip prints, as one of the dermatoglyphics, have been used as genetic makers in many congenital and clinical disorders. [22] Thus lip prints can be used in forensic science in sex determination.


  Conclusion Top


In conclusion, the percentage distribution of lip print in a Nigerian population shows variation with other populations. Lip print show sexual dimorphism among the Nigerian population. Hence, lip print holds potential promise as supplementary tool in personal identification and forensic medicine. It is recommended that more studies should be conducted on lip prints in various Nigerian ethnic groups.


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors thank all the individuals who volunteered to participate in this research.

 
  References Top

1.Thomas CJ, Van-Wyk CW. The palatal rugae in identification. J Forensic Odontostomatol 1988;6:21-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Utsuno H. Preliminary study of post mortem personal identification by lip prints. Hawaii/tech program. Abstract. 2004. Available from: http://www.iadr.confex.com [Last accessed on 2013 Jan 14].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Kasprazak J. Possibilities of chieloscopy. Forensic Sci Int 1990;46:145-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Caldas IM, Magalhaes T, Afanso A. Establishing identity using cheiloscopy and palatoscopy. Forensic Sci Int 2007;165:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Suzuku K, Tsuchihashi Y. A new attempt of personal identification by means of lip print. J India Dent Assoc 1970;42:8-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Saraswith TR, Mishra G, Ranganathan K. Study of lip prints. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.El-Domiaty MA, Al-gaidi SA, Eleya AA, Safwit MD, Galal SA. Morphological patterns of lip prints in Saudi Arabia at Almedinah Al-monawarah province. Forensic Sci Int 2010;15:179.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Gondivker SM, Inducker DS, Bhowate R. Cheiloscopy for sex determination. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:56-60.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Ramandeep SN, Preeti CA, Kawar R. Cheiloscopy as an aid to forensic methodology. Indian J Compr Dent Care 2011;1:57-60.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Shilpa P, Ish P, Madhu SA, Gayathri R, Sowmya GV. A study of lip prints in relation to gender, family and blood group. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2010;1:4-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Hassan FZ, Fahmy SM. The pattern of lip prints in upper Egyptians. Assiut Med J 1977;1:477-86.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Sivapathasundharam B, Prakash PA, Sivakumar G. Lip prints (cheiloscopy). Indian J Dent Res 2001;12:234-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Acharya B, Sivapathasundharam B. Forensic Odentology. In: Rajendram R, Sivapathasundharam B, editors. Shafer′s Text Book of Oral Pathology. 5 th ed. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2006; p. 1199-227.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Vahanwala S. Study of lip prints as an aid to Forensic methodology. J Indian Dent Assoc 2000;71:268-71.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Weil M, Saad MS, Assem HK, Hassan FZ, El-otiefy MA. Genetic Studies on the Inheritance of Lip Prints in-Cleft Lip and Palate. Egypt J Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;29:9-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Maheswari TN. Lip prints. PG Dissertation, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Chennai: Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Annie JV, Somaseker M, Umesh BR. A study on lip print types among the people of Kerala. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2010;32:6-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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19.Nagasupriya A, Dhanapal R, Reena K, Saraswathi TR, Ramachandran CR. Patterns: A crime solver. J Forensic Dent Sci 2011;3:3-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
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22.Afaf TY, Abd-Elwances S, El-Awdan A. The inheritance of lip prints patterns. Tanta Med J 1987;1:26.  Back to cited text no. 22
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13]


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